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This month we'll tell you the particle "o".
- It's been a long time since we wrote the last article.
It has several usages as follows.
1. (1)Hon o yomimasu.
- (2)kooen de kodomo o asobaseru.
2.Densha o oriru.
- (3)Musuko no kekkon o yorokobu.
3.Tori ga sora o tonde iru.
4.Tsugi no kado o migi ni magatte kudasai.
We'll explain them in this article.
1. "O" marks a direct object.
- (1)Hon o yomimasu.
- Ongaku o kikimasu.(I listen to the music.)
- Hon o yomi mashoo.( Let's read a book)
- Rainen daigaku no shiken o ukeru tsumori desu.
- ( I'll take an entrance exam.to college next year.)
- Ocha o irete agemashoo.( I'll serve you green tea.)
- Nihongo de tegami o kaku.(I write a letter in Japanese.)
- Oyu o wakasu. ( I boil water.)
- Watashi wa tanaka san ni hon o karita.(I borrowed the book from Mr.Tanaka.)
- Tanaka san wa kinoo kanojo ni denwa o kakemashita.(Mr.Tanaka called her yesterday.)
- Juu o utsu na. (Don't shoot the gun)
* It is noted that the direct object in English is not always marked by
- Jibun no shita koto ni sekinin o toru.( I take the responsibility for what I have done.)
- "o" in Japanese.
- ex) Rainen kare to kekkon suru.(I'll marry him next year.)
- Kinoo tomodachi to shinjuku de atta.(I met my friend in Shinjuku yesterday.)
- Sono shirase wa kesa todoita.(The news reached me this morning.)
- (2)Musuko no kekkon o yorokobu
- "O" marks the cause of some human emotion.
- Hito bito wa kare no wakai shi o kanashinda(People felt deep sorrow at his young death.)
- Seito tachi wa daigaku gookaku o yorokondeiru.
- ( Students are pleased at their success in entrance exam.)
- (3)kodomo o asobase masu.
- "O" marks causative object.
- We don't use the particle "o" more than once in a clause.
- So in the causative construction when the verb is intransitive as in (1) "o" is usually used ,
while when the verb is transitive as in (2) "ni" is usually used.
- (1)Musuko o yuujin no kaisha de hatarakasete iru.
- (I forced my son to work for my friend's company.)
- Kodomo o nagai jikan arukaseta.(I made my son walk for a long time.)
- (2)Sensei wa seito ni hon o yomaseru.(The teacher makes the student read
- the book.)
- Kodomo ni yaritai yooni saseru kotomo tokiniwa hitsuyou desu.
- (It is sometimes neccessary to let a child do as he wants to do.)
- koochi wa senshu ni mainichi renshuu o saseta.
- (The coach made the player practice every day.)
2.Densha o oriru.
- "O" marks the location where some movement begins .
- When we use this "o", we focus on a point of detachment.
- Densha wa jikoku doori ni eki o deta.(The train left the station on time.)
- Musuko wa kyonen daigaku o sotsugyoo shita.
- (My son graduated from the university last year.)
- Kesa ie o deta toki ame ga futte ita.(When I left home this morning,it was raining.)
- *The particle "kara" is similar to this usage.
- But when we use "kara", we focus on a starting point and we are conscious of the direction ( from one place to another place).
- ex)Doroboo wa mado kara haitte genkan kara deteitta rashii.
- (It seems that a thief came in through the window and went out of the front door.)
- Kaidan kara ochite kega o shita.(Falling down from the stairs,I was injured in the leg.)
3.Tori ga sora o tonde iru.
- Higashi kara hi ga noboru.(The sun rises in the east.)
- "O" indicates a space in,on,across,through,along which someone or something moves.
- Kyuuna saka o noboru.( I go up a steep slope.)
- Anna kireina hito to kooen o sanpo shitaina.
- ( I want to take a walk with such a beautiful girl in the park.)
- Nihon dewa hito wa migigawa o aruki kuruma wa hidarigawa o hashirimasu.
- (In Japan people walk along the right side of a road and cars
- go along the left side.)
4.Tugi no kado o migi ni magatte kudasai.(Please turn right at the next corner.)
- "O" indicates a point through which someone or something passes.
- Gochuui kudasai. Densha ga sanbansen o tsuuka shimasu.
- (Attention please,the train will pass on the third track.)
- Kooen o tootte gakkoo e kayou.( I go to school passing through the park.)
- Hooan ga ryooin o tsuuka shita.(The bill passed both houses)
- Tonneru o nukeru to fujisan ga mieru.(Passing through the tunnel, you can see the Mt.Fuji.)
- Kuruma wa seigen sokudo o koeta.(The car exceeded the speed limit.)
- Nyuuin seikatsu ga sankagetsu o koeta.(I've been in the hospital for more than three months.)
5.Other expressions of the particle "o"
- Kare wa watashi no hoo o muita.(He turned toward me.)
- Kanojo wa aoi me o shiteiru. (She has blue eyes.)
- Musume ga kekkon shitai to itta toki chichi wa iyana kao o shita.
- (When the daughter said to her father that she would like to marry her boy friend,
- he scowled his displeasure.)
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