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"te and de" used to connect the sentences.
You may have learned the following sentences.
- Asa okite kao o aratte gohan o taberu.
- (In the morning I get up, wash my face and have breakfast.)
- Ano hito wa atama ga yokute hansamu desu.
- (He is smart and handsome.)
This "te-form" is used to connect the sentences. "Te-form" itself doesn't have specific meanings.
The meaning of the te-form varies according to context which the first sentence and
the following sentence produce.
This month we'll tell you the relationship between the two sentences when the te-form links two.
1. Used to link similar items in a parallel relationship.
- Kyoo wa kaze ga tsuyokute samui..
- (It is windy and cold today.)
- Kanojo wa kawaikute genkide hito ni shinsetsu desu.
- (She is pretty, cheerful and kind to people.)
- Nyuusu wa hayakute seikaku de nakereba naranai.
- (The news has to be fresh and accurate.)
- Kanojo wa 30sai de dokushin da.
- (She is thirty years old and unmarried.)
- Kinoo wa odotte utatte tomodachi to tanoshiku sugoshita.
2. Used to indicate a temporal sequence( since, after )
- (I enjoyed dancing and singing with my friends and had a good time yesterday.)
When two or more actions take place in succession, the actions are mentioned in order of occurrence and these actions must be done by the same person.
- Ex)*Tomodachi no uchi ni itte issyoni syokuji o shimashita.(I went to my friend's house and we had dinner together.) (correct)
- *Tomodachi no uchi ni itte kare wa imasen deshita.( I went to my friend's house but he was out.) (wrong)
The tense form of the last verb in the sentence determines the tense of the sentence.
- Ex)* Asa okite kao o arau.(I get up and wash my face in the morning.)
* Asa okite kao o aratta.(I got up and washed my face in the morning.)
* Gakkoo e itte tomodachi ni atta.(I went to school and met my friends.)
* Denwa shite tsugoo o kiite kare o tazuneta.
(I called him, asked whether he was free, and then visited him.)
* Asu kanojo wa tomodachi to atte eiga o miyoo to omotte imasu.
(She is going to meet her friend and see the movie.)
- When the second sentence expresses the continuous state the meaning of "te-form"is "since"
- Ex)* Kanojo ga rainichishite san-nen tatsu.
- (It has been three years since she came to Japan.)
* Kekkon shite Oosaka ni sundeiru.
3. Used to indicate a cause or reason.
- (I have been in Osaka since I married)
- The first part of the sentence expresses a cause or reason and the second part expresses the consequence produced by the cause.
- Ki kara ochite ashi no hone o otta.
- (I fell from the tree and broke my leg.)
- Kesa kare wa neboo shite gakkoo ni okureta.
- (He overslept this morning and was late for school.)
- Yooji ga atte kyoo wa ikemasen.
- (I have my own business, so I can't come today.)
- Ichinichi juu isogashikute totemo tsukareta.
- (I had been busy all day, so I got very tired.)
- Sono kooto wa takakute te ga denai.
- (The coat is so expensive that I can't buy it.)
- Ame ni furarete kaze o hiita.
- ( As I was drenched with rain, I caught a cold.)
- Atsukute nerare nai.
- ( I can't sleep well for the heat.)
- Anata ni aete ureshii desu.
- ( I'm glad to see you,)
- Sono nyuusu o kiite bikkuri shita.
- ( I was surprised to hear the news.)
- Kono ryoori oishikute tabesugite shimatta.
- (This food is so delicious that I ate too much.)
# This sentence pattern has many constraints over its usage, so "te-form" can't express various cause or reason like "~kara" "~node"
# Expressions containing volition (will, orders, invitations or request) are not used as the predicate in the latter part of the sentence.
- Ex)* Atsu kute oyogini ikitai. (wrong)
- *Atsui kara oyogini ikitai. (correct)l
# In this sentence pattern, the first action takes place first and the second one takes place after that.
- (As it's very hot I want to go swimming)
- *Asu tesuto ga atte kyoo wa benkyoo shinakereba naranai.(W)
- (As I have a test tomorrow , I have to study today.)
# When "te" expresses a cause or reason, both "nakute" and "naiad" can
be used but "nakute" is used more often.
- *Asu tesuto ga aru node kyoo wa benkyoo shinakereba naranai. (C)
- Anata ni aenakute (aenaide) zannendeshita.
- (I was disappointed not to meet you.)
- Yasashii kanji ga yomenakute(yomenaide) hazukashikatta.
- (I felt embarrassed when I couldn't read easy kanji.)
- Nikon in ita toki wa kotoba ga wakaranakute(wakaranaide) komarimashita.
- (When I came to Japan I had a hard time, because I couldn't speak any
4. Used to indicate a means or method.(by)
Tetsuya shite shigoto o sumaseta.
- (I worked all night and finished my work.)
Uchi kara eki made aruite 30 pun kakaru.
- (It is 30- minute-walk from my house to the station.)
Mukashi no hito wa ki o kosutte hi o okoshita.
5. Used to indicate a contrast or opposition.(and or but)
- (Ancient people got fire by scrubbing the sticks.)
Banana wa kiiro de ringo wa akai.
- (Bananas are yellow and apples are red.
Chuugoku wa hirokute nihon wa semai.
- (China is big and Japan is small)
Chichi wa ginkooin de haha wa kyooshi desu.
- (My father is a banker and mother is a teacher)
Kimu san ga kankoku ryoori o tsukutte Oo san ga cyuugoku ryoori o tsukurimashita.
- (Mr.Kim made Korean dish and Mr.Oo made Chinese dish.)
Konna ni doryoku shite mada dekinai.
- (I have tried so hard, but I still can't do it.)
Kare wa jijitsu o shitte ite shiranai furi o shita.
- (Though he knew the fact, he pretended not to know it)
Knnani isshoo ken mei benkyo shiteite seiseki ga yoku naranai.
- (I' ve studied so hard yet I can't have good exam result.)
Yakusoku o shiteoite yabutte wa ikenai.
- (When you make a promise, don't break it.)
Kanojo wa asondeite benkyoo ga dekiru.
6. Used when two actions occur almost simultaneously.
- (She plays around, yet she always does well on test. )
Kanojo wa sofa ni suwatte hon o yondeiru.
- (Sitting on the sofa, she is reading a book.)
Kare wa udegumi o shite nanika kangaete ita.
- (He was thinking about something with his arm folded.)
Keiko san wa mado no soba ni tatte soto o mite iru..
- (Standing by the window, Keiko is watching outside.)
Te o tataite karera no kekkon o syukufuke shita.
# This pattern is not the same as"--nagara".
- ( We clapped our hands for their wedding.)
The first sentence expresses a certain state and under this state the next actions takes place. On the other hand "--nagara" expresses the two action take place simultaneously
See the following sentences.
- Aruki nagara atarashii shigoto no hanashi o shita.(C)
- ( Walking together, we were talking about our new project.)
- ==>Aruite atarashii shigoto no hanashi o shita (W)
- Terebi o minagara gohan o taberu.( C)
- ( Watching TV, I eat dinner.)
- Terebi o mite gohan o taberu. (W)(This is not the usage 6 but the usage 2.)
#In this usage not "nakute" but only "naiad" is used.(Please see the usage 3)
- ( After I watch TV, I eat dinner.)
Watahi wa asagohan o tabenaide gakkoo e itta.
- (Not having had breakfast I went to school.)
- Shinpai shinaide yoi shirase o matte kudasai.
- (Don't worry and wait for a good news.)
- Musuko wa benkyoo shinaide terebi bakari miteiru.
- (My son doesn't study at all and just watch TV.)
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