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A student made the following sentences.
gTokyo Daigaku ni hairu yoo ni ganbarimasuh
gNihongo ga joozu ni hanaseru tameni isshookenmei benkyoo shimasuh
Do you think these sentences are correct ?
This month wefll learn these gtame(ni)fand gyoonif which are used to express a purpose.
Clause/phrase before [tameni/youni] indicates the purpose or the goal and a main clause indicates a volitional action to attain that objective or to get closer to that objective.
The dictionary form of a volitional verb should be used before gtame(ni) and a negative-form(nai-form) of a verb seldom before it. Subject of a sentence and the actor of a verb before gtame(ni)h are usually the same.
- Ie o kau tameni chokinshiteimasu.
(Ifm saving money to buy a house.)
- Daigaku ni hairu tameni benkyooshiyoo
(Ifll study hard to enter the university.)
- Netsu o sageru tameni kusuri o nondari chuusya o shitari shimashita
(I took medicine and had an injection to lower my
- Ikiru tameni hatarakanakerebanarani.
(I have to work to live.)
- Inu no sampo o suru tameni hayaku okimasu.
- (I get up early to take my dog for a walk.)
- Tsuma o yorokobaseru tameni yubiwa o kaimashita.
- (I bought a ring to please my wife).
- Ii spiichi o suru tameni mainichi rensyuu shiteimasu.
- (I practice every day to make a good speech.)
- Nihon o motto yoku shiru tameni nihon ni ryuugakushita.
- (Ifm studying in Japan to know more about Japan.)
- Nihongo no bunpoo o wakaraseru tameni e o tsukatte setsumeishimasu.
(The teacher explains with pictures to the students to make them understand Japanese grammar.)
- Musuko wa sakkaa no shiai o miru tameni kyou wa hayaku kaettekimashita.
- (My son came home early to watch the soccer game.)
- Asa rokuji no nihongokooza o kiku tameni rajio o setto shiteokimasu
(I set the timer of the radio for six to listen to the Japanese lecture .
The dictionary form of non-volitional verbs which express state such as potential verbs,dekiru,wakaru,mieru,kikoeru and etc. And the negative form of verbs are used before yooni. The subject of a sentence and that of clause before yooni are not always the same.
- Ii seiseki ga toreru yooni mainichi benkyooshinasai.
(You should study every day so that you can get a good score).
- Kono kiji ga oozei no hito ni yomareru yooni keijiban ni hatte okimasyoo.
- (If ll put this article on a notice board so that itfll be read by many people.)
- Gakko ni chikokushinai yooni mezamashi-dokei o kakete okimasu,
- (I set an alarm clock so that I wonft be late for school.)
- Netsu ga sagaru yooni kusuri o nondari cyuusya o shitari shimashita.
- (I took medicine and had an injection so that my temperature would drop.)
- Ii supiichi ga dekiru yooni mainichi rensyuu shiteimasu.
- (I practice every day so that Ifll be able to make a good speech,)
- Nihongo ga joozuni naru yooni teepu o kiiteimasu.
- (I listen to a tape so that Ifll improve my Japanese.)
- Kodomo ga sawaranai yooni abunai mono wa takai tokoroni okimasu.
- (I put dangerous things on the high shelf so that children wonft reach them,)
- Heya niwa kodomo ga yorokobu yooni doobutsu no e ga kaketearimasu.
- iThere are pictures of animals on the wall of kidfs room to please the children.j
- Nihongo no bunpoo ga wakaru yooni sensei wa e o tsukatte setsumeishite kuremashita.
- (The teacher explained with pictures so that the students might understand Japanese Grammar.)
- Ushiro no hito nimo mieru yooni kokuban no ji wa ookiku kaitekudasai.
- (Please write large letters on the blackboard so that the students in the back seats can see well.)
- Yoku kikoeru yooni rajikase no oto o ookikushimasu.
- (I turn up the radio cassette player so that I can hear well.)
There are some verbs which can be either volitional or
non-volitional. In this case either [tameni] or [yooni] can be used as the following sentences show.
Yaseru tameni daietto o shiteimasu.
Yaseru yooni daietto o shiteimasu.
(Ifm on a diet to be slim.)
Nihon no seikatsu ni nareru tameni nihonjin no ie ni geshukushimasu,
Nihon no seikatsu ni nareru yooni nihonjin no ie ni geshuku shimasu,
(I stay with a Japanese family to get accustomed to Japanese life.)
- Byooki o naosu( )ni shujutsu o ukemashita.
- Tanoshii paatii ni naru( )ni geemu o suru kotoni shimashita.
- Kyanpu o suru( )ni shokuryoo o takusan yooishimashita.
- Ojiisan wa katai nomomo taberareruyooni ( )ni hao naoshimashita.
- Konsaato no kippuo toru( )ni nandomo denwashita.
- Shihatsu-densha ni noru( )ni asa hayaku shuppatsushita.
- Kenkoo o ijidekiru( )ni mainichi undooshite imasu.
- Koibito e no purezento o kau( )ni depaato ni ikimashita.
- Wasurenai( )ni memo o torimasu.
- Musuko ga joobuni naru( )ni suiei o narawasemashita.
- Kyooshi ni naru( )ni kyooshokukatei no jugyoo o totte imasu.
- Kyooshi ni nareru( )ni kyooshokukatei no jugyoo o totte imasu.
1 tame 2 yoo 3 tame 4 yoo 5 tame
6 tame 7 yoo 8 tame 9 yoo@
10@yoo (yoo indicates a situation in this case.)
11 tame( tame indicates the volitional form in this case.)@@
12 yoo(gnareruh is the potential form of gnaruh)
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