"Wa to Ga "

When we see a beautiful moon, we say "Kyou no tsuki wa kirei desu ne." and
we also say "Tsuki ga kirei desu ne" . We don't say "kyou no tsuki ga kirei desu ne".
In this example how to use "wa and ga" is not easy.
This month we will show you the basic usages of the particle "wa and ga".
(1) `wa `desu/masu
We use this form to express a universal truth, custom and known information and explanations .
The latter part of the sentence is the focus.
ex) Nihon wa ajia ni aru shimaguni desu.
(Japan is an island country in Asia.)
Watashi wa daigakusei desu.
(I am a university student.)
Taiyou wa higashi kara dete nishi ni shizumu.
(The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.)
Kare wa maiasa jogging o shiteiru.
(He jogs every morning.)
Natsume Souseki wa nihon no yuumeina sakka desu.
(Souseki Natsume is a famous Japanese writer.)
(2) `ga `desu/masu
This is used for describing things such as events, natural phenomenons and presenting new imformation.
In this form,the beginning part of the sentence is now the focus.
ex) Sora ga aokute kirei desune.
(The sky is blue and very beautiful.)
Ame ga kyuuni furi hajimeta.
(It began to rain suddenly.)
Kesa densha no jiko ga atta.
(There was a train accident in the morning.)
Kaze ga tsuyoi ne. Boushi ga tobasare souda.
(A strong wind is blowing. My hat is likely to be blown off.)
Mukashi mukashi chiisana machi ni ojiisan to obaasan ga sunde imashita.
(Long long ago there lived an old man and an old woman in the small town.)
(3) `wa + interrogative `ka
@Not "ga " but "wa"always comes in front of interrogative pronoun.
ex) Hon wa doko desu ka
(Where is the book?)
Hon wa tsukue no ueni arimasu.
(It's on the desk.)
Mado no soba ni iru hito wa daredesu ka.
(Who is the man standing by the window?)
(4) interrogative + ga `ka
ex) Hako no naka ni nani ga arimasu ka.
(What is in the box?)
Dare ga party ni kimasu ka.
(who will come to the party?)
(5) `wa `ga `desu/masu
This form is used when we see the whole issue but choose only to describe part of it.
ex) Zou wa hana ga nagai.
(An elephant has a long nose.)

Chuugoku wa jinkou ga ooi.
(China has a large population.)

(6) `wa `ga `desu/masu.
The object of a predicate is usually indicated by the particle "o",
but it is indicated by the particle "ga" when the sentences have
the predicate that states preference, desire or one`s ability. It is often used
with "suki, kirai, dekiru,wakaru,tokui and etc"...
This form is also used in idiomatic expressions such as "nioi ga suru"
and "aji ga suru".
ex) Kanojo wa ryouri ga tokui desu.
(She is good at cooking.)
Karera wa sono setsumei ga wakarimasen.
(They don't understand the explanation.)
Kare wa jyouzuni eigo ga hanasemasu.
(He can speak English well.)
Oishisouna nioi ga suru.
(It smells delicious.)
(7) `wa `desuga/masuga, `wa `desu/masu.
This form is used for expressing contrast.
ex) Watashi wa sushi wa sukidesu ga nattou wa suki dewa arimasen.
(I like sushi but I don't like nattou.)
Kare wa yakyuu wa dekimasu ga tenisu wa dekimasen.
(He can play baseball but he can't play tennis.)
Suugaku wa tokui desu ga eigo wa tokui dewa arimasen.
(I am good at math but poor at English.)
Please compare the next sentences,
(1)Tsuki ga kireidesune..
(2)Kyou no tsuki wa kireidesune..
(1) is a usual sentence .
(2) is implied that the speaker is contrasting today's moon with
another day's moon, though the contrasting word is not mentioned.
(8)In a complex sentence,the subject of the subordinate clause is usually
indicated by the particle "ga" not "wa".
When the predicate is the expressed saying or opinion such as "to
iimasu and to omoimasu", and when two sentences are connected
with the conjunction such as " and, so, for, but
and etc.", this doesn't happen.
ex) Karega ekini tsuitatoki densya wa itte shimatta ato datta.
(When he got to the station,the train had already left.)
Asu tomodachiga kuru node heya o souji shimasu.
(As my friend is comihg to my house tomorrow,I'll clean my room.)
Haha ga tsukutte kureta dress wa totemo sutekida.
(The dress which my mother made is very nice.)
Kare ga dokushin nano o shitte imasuka.
(Do you know he is a bachelor?)
Keikosan wa party ni okureru to tanakasan wa iimashita.
(Mr. Tanaka said,"Keiko will be late for the party."
Kare no hanashi wa totemo jyuyou datta noni daremo kiite inakatta.
( His story was very important, but nobody listened to it.)
¦When the subject of the subordinate clause is the same as that of
the main clause, it is usually omitted.
ex) Yamadasanwa (yamadasan ga) kaita eo misetekuremashita.
(Mr.Yamada showed me the picture he had drawn.)
Kanojo wa Shinjyukue itta toki ( kanojyo wa ) tomodachi ni aimashita.
(When she went to Shinjyuku,she met her friend.)
(9)WA is used to emphasize a word,so it can be used in negative sentences often.
ex) kyoushitsu dewa nihongo o hanashite kudasai.
(In the classroom,please speak Japanese.)
Kyou no asa gohan wa tabemasen deshita.
(I didn't have breakfast this morning.)

A: Atama ga itai nodesu ka.(Do you have a headache?)
B: Iie atama wa itakunaidesu. Haga itai nodesu. (No, I have a toothache.)

(10)Idiomatic expression

ex) A: Soko e dou yatte iku. (How will you get there?)
B: Boku wa bus. (I'll go by bus.)
C: Watashi wa taxi. (I'll go by taxi.)


A: Omagosan wa. (Do you have any grand-children?)
B: Ee futari imasu.Musume wa otoko de musuko wa onna desu.
( Yes, I have two. My daughter has a boy and my son has a girl.)

Please choose an appropriate word in the following sentences.

1, Beer (wa ga) nomemasu ga, nihonsyu (wa ga) nomemasen.
2, Kyou (wa ga) tenki (wa ga) ii desune.
3, Watahi (wa ga) kuruma no unten (wa ga) dekimasu.
4, Boku no koibito (wa ga) me (wa ga) totemo kirei desu.
5, Nani (wa ga) nomi taidesuka?
6, Curry no nioi (wa ga) shimasu ne .
7, Sono kaban ni nani (wa ga) haitte iruno desuka.
8, Mukashi kireina huku (wa ga) daisukina oosama (wa ga) imashita.
Oosama (wa ga) mainichi atarashii huku o kimashita.
9, Kono mise (wa ga) gozentyu (wa ga) aite imasen yo.
10,A:Nani o nomu?
__ B:Boku (wa ga) coffee.
__ C:Watashi (wa ga) nihon-tya.

(Answer)1 wa wa , 2 wa ga , 3 wa ga , 4 wa ga , 5 ga , 6 ga ,
7 ga , 8 ga ga wa 9 wa wa , 10 wa wa

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