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"To Ba Tara Nara "

This month I will show you the usages of "to" "ba" "tara""nara"and each character.
We use them to describe conditions.In some sentences we can use them
interchangeably, but in others we cannot.

1 TO
(construction)
Verb ,I-adjective -- Dictionary form + to (kaeru to, samui to)
Na-ajective , Noun -- Dictionary form + dato (genki dato, kodomo dato)
(Meaning )
1. An inevitable result such as a natural and predictable event.

Haru ni naru to hana ga saki masu.
(When spring comes, flowers bloom.)
Okane o ireru to kippu ga demasu.
(Insert money into the machine,and you'll get a ticket.)

2 An unpredictable event
Department store ni iku to yasumi datta.
(When I went to the department store , I found it closed.)
Asa mado o akeru to jimen wa yuki de masshiro datta.
(In the morning I opened the window and found the ground was covered with snow.)
Ie ni kaeru to tomodachi ga matte ita.
(When I came back home , I found my friend was waiting for me.

3 A habitual event
Okiru to sugu kao o arau.
(As soon as I get up.I usually wash my face.)

<< The character of "To".
As I mentioned above "to"-clause leads an inevitable situation,so it is not used
in expressions which reflect the speaker's will, judgment, permission, view,
order or request.

So we can say,
Okane ga naito nanimo kaemasen.(If you have no money,you can't buy
anything.)
But we can't say,
+ Okane ga nai to hataraki nasai.(If you have no money,work hard)
+ Haru ni naruto yamanobori o suru tsumori desu.(When spring comes,I'm
going to go mountain-climbing.)
2 BA
(construction)
Verb 1-group--eba 2-group--reba ,(sakeba, orireba)
I-adjective --kereba ,(ookikereba)
Na-ajective Noun -- naraba -->Look 3 NARA(shizukanaraba ,gakuseinaraba)
(Meaning )
1 Subjunctive
* Unlike the sentence led by "to"clause,
"ba" is used in expressions which reflect
the speaker's will,judgment, permission, view, order or request.
Yasu kereba kaimasu.
(If it's cheaper, I will buy it.)

Ashita harereba dekake masyoh.
(If it is fine tomorrow , let's go out.)
Ame nara ba doko emo ikimasen.
(If it rains,I won't go anywhere.)
Okane ga nakereba hataraki nasai.
(If you have no money,work hard)
2 An inevitable result such as natural and predictable event.
( Similar usage to "to "-1)
Haru ni nareba hana ga saki masu.
(When spring comes, flowers bloom.)
Kuruma ga fuereba kuhki ga yogoreru.
(If the number of cars increases ,we'll have more air pollution.)

* "ba" is usually used in the present tence except the following cases.
1)When it is used in a subjunctive mood, this sentence often contains
speaker's regret.
Watashi ga tori nara(ba) anata no tokoro ni tonde iketa(noni).
(If I were a bird, I could have flown to you.)
Okanega nareba ryokou ni iketa(noni).
(If I had had enough money, I could have traveled.)
2) The past habitual event.
Kodomo no koro tennki ga yokereba yoku soto de asonda.
(When I was a child, I would play outside if the weather was fine.)

<<The character of "BA"
In the sentence using ba, there is an opposite situation in speaker's
mind.
ex) Ame ga fureba picnic ni ikimasen.
(If it rains,I won't go on a picnic .But if it is fine,I'll go on a picnic.)
Okane ga areba ryokoh ni ike masu.
(If I have money, I will be able to travel. But if I donLt have money, I wonLt be able to travel)
Motto renshuh sureba nihongo ga jouzuni narimasu.
(If you practice harder, your Japanese will improve)

3 TARA

(construction)
Verb ,I-adjective , Na-ajective -- Past form + tara (haittara, warukattara, johbudattra)
Noun -- Noun + dattara (isya dattara)
(Meaning )
1 Subjunctive
Ashita ame ga futtara iki masen.
(If it rains tomorrow , I won't go .)
Yasu kattara kaimasu.
(If it's cheaper, I will buy it.)
Moshi komattara o denwa kudasai.
(If you are in trouble , please call me.)
Moshi kanojo ga dokushin dattara date shitaidesu.
(If she is single, I want to date her.)
# This usage is similar to Ba-1,so these sentences can be restated
with "ba" .
Ashita ame ga fureba iki masen.
Yasu kereba kaimasu.
2 unpredictable events
Mado o aketara umi ga mieta.
(When I opened the window , I could see the sea.)
Department store ni ittara yasumi datta.
(When I went to the department store , I found it closed.)

3 a certain result
Kusuri o nondara naotta.
(After taking a medicine, I got well).
# 2and3 can be restated with "to"
Mado o akeru to umi ga mieta.
Department store ni iku to yasumi datta.
Kusuri o nomuto naotta.

4 Future perfect ,( expresses certain future )
Hon o yondara kashite kudasai.
(After you finish reading the book, please lend it to me)

Ohsaka ni tsuitara denwa o kudasai.
(When you arrive at Ohsaka, please call me.)

* Usages 2,3 and 4 can not be restated with "ba". And usages 1,4can not be restated with "to"

<< The character of "TARA".
Unlike "ba" there is no opposite situation in the speaker's mind,
Among ba, tara, nara and tara can be used the most widely.
Usage no.4 of "tara" is the characteristic usage of "tara" ,so it can
not be restated with "to" "ba" "nara".

4 NARA

(construction)
Verb ,I-adjective , Na-ajective -- Dictionary form + nara (surunara, oishinara, hansamunara)
Noun -- Noun + nara (coffee nara)
<<the character of "NARA"
("Nara" has slightly different usages from gtoh, gbah and gtarah)
It is used when the speaker addresses the topic introduced by the other
person as the main theme. The sentence preceded by "nara" often
expresses the speaker's advice,suggestion,requirement, or judgment.

1 A : Nihonngo ga motto jouzu ni naritaina.(I wish Icould speak
Japanese more fluently)
B : Nihongo ga jouzu ni naritai nara takusan no hito to nihon-go de hanasu kotoda.
(If you want to improve your Japanese , you had better speak
Japanese with your friends.)
2 A : Raisyu chuhgoku e ikimasu.( I'll go to China next week.)
B : Chuhgoku e iku nara otya o katte kite kudasai.

(If you go to China , please buy chinese tea for me.)
3 A : Ano mise ii kutsu ga yasui soudesu yo.(I heard that they sell good
and cheap shoes at that shop)
B : Yasuinara issyoni ikimasyou. (Then let's go together)
4 A : kondo no nichiyoubi eiga o mini ikimasyou.
(Let's go to the movie next Sunday.)
B :Iiyo. kondo no nichiyoubi nara daijoubu.
( Ok Let' s, I'm free next Sunday)..

*Na-adj. and noun + nara have two usages. One is this usage, the other is subjunctive
( see above ba-1)
Amenara ikimasenn.(If it rains, I won't go)
Shizuka nara nerareta noni. (If it had been quiet, I could have slept well. )

Please choose an appropriate word in the following sentences.

1 Hima ga ( aruto attara ) tetsudatte kudasai.
2 TV o ( tsukeruto tsukereba ) news o yatte ita.
3 Coffee o ( nomunara nomeba )ano mise ga ii desu.
4 Jisyo o ( hikunara hikeba ) wakari masu.
5 4-gatsu ni ( nattara narunara ) ohanami ni ikimasyoh.
6 ( Dekireba Dekiruto ) hayaku kaeritai.
7 Syujin wa asa ( okirunana okiruto ) sugu mizu o nomu.
8 Passport ga ( hitsuyohdato hitsuyohnara ) motte kimasu.


(Answer)
1 attara 2 tukeruto 3 nomunara 4 hikeba 5 nattara 6 dekireba 7 okiruto 8 hitsuyohnara


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