"Jidoushi and Tadoushi "

There are jidoushi and tadoushi in Japanese.
Jidoushi is an intransitive verb and tadoushi is a transitive verb, but they are
not exactly the same as English intransitive verbs and transitives verb .

Let's study "jidoushi and tadoushi "this month.
"jidoushi" doesn't require an object.
But "tadoushi" requires an object which is preceded by a particle "o",
and it expresses an action that acts upon the object.(There are other usages of
the particle "o", so not every particle "o"indicates an object. I'll tell about
particles in another article.).

When you study Japanese, you don't always have to identify jidoushi and
tadoushi. But as for some sentences, if you can identify them, it will be helpful
for your study of Japanese.
I'll show you some "jidoushi and tadoushi" that you should memorize in
the following paragraph.

Most of "jidoushi and tadoushi" that you should memorize become pair verbs and a
few verbs can be both jidoushi and tadoushi. When we use those "tadoushi"
which are preceded by a particle "o", we are conscious of who or what takes the action.
On the other hand when we use "jidoushi", which is usually preceded by a particle
"ga"there is no concern who or what takes the action.
That is, the difference between the usage of "tadoushi and jidoishi"
depends on where or what the speaker focuses his/her attention .

1, Watashi wa door o akeru.(I open the door.)
"Akeru" is tadoushi.
Door ga aku.(The door opens)
"Aku" is jidoushi.

* (If you reload this file, you can see the animation.)

2, Denki o kesu.(I turn off the light.)
"Kesu "is tadoushi.

Denki ga kieru.(The light is turned off.)
"Kieru" is jidoushi.
* (If you reload this file, you can see the animation.)

I arrange "jidqushi and tadoushi" in the tables below for you to memorize easily.
Please learn them by heart in a short sentence.

(Pairs of Intransitive and Transitive verbs)

"Me no mae ni kuruma ga tomaru."<--------------->"Chusha-jou ni kuruma o tomeru."
(The car stops in front of me.)<----------------->(I park my car in the parking lot.

"Tegami ga todoku."<-------------------------------------->"Tegami o todokeru."
(I received a letter.)<--------------------------------->(He delivers the letter.)

"Chikyu ga mawaru."<-------------------------------------->"Koma o mawasu."
(The earth is rotating.)<--------------------------------->(I am spinning the top.)

"Kinomi ga ochiru."<---------------------------------->"Kinomi o otosu."
(A fruit is falling.)<-------------------------------->(I am picking a fruit.)

"Beer ga hieru."<------------------------------->"Atama o hiyasu."
(The beer is cooling.)<------------------------>(His mother is making his head cold.)
"Soup ga sameru."<-------------------------------------->"Atsui coffee o samasu."
(Soup is getting cold.)<--------------------------------->(I am cooling my coffee.)

"Ame de kuruma ga yogoreru."<--------------------->"Coffee de huku o yogosu."
(The car is getting dirty.)<-------------->(I drop my coffee and make my dress dirty.)

"Kaze de ki no eda ga oreru."<----------------------->"Ki no eda o oru."
(The branch is breaking.)<--------------------------->(I am breaking the branch.)

(The table of verbs)
*They are classified according to the ending of each word.
agaru(rise)---------------------- ageru(raise)
atsumaru(gather) --------------atsumeru(gather,collect)
kakaru(hang) --------------------kakeru(hang)
kimaru(be decided)-------------- kimeru(decide)
simaru(close)------------------- simeru(close)
tomaru(stop) --------------------tomeru(stop)
hajimaru(begin)--------------- hajimeru(begin)
kawaru(change)------------------- kaeru(change)
"Door ga shimaru.(The door closes.)<----------->"Door o shimeru.(I close the door.) "Hito ga atsumaru.(A crowd gathers.)<-------->"Kitte o atsumeru.(I collect stamps.)

tatsu(be built, stand)-------------tateru(build stand)
aku(open)-------------------------- akeru(open)
tsuku(light on)------------------- tsukeru(turn on)
"Denki ga tuku."(The light is turned on.)<->"Denki o tsukeru."(I turned on the light.)

(3) ru----------------------------->su
mawaru(turn)------------- mawasu(turn)
naoru(be fixed,get well)-- naosu(fix,cure)

(4) iru--------------------------->osu
okiru(wake up)------------ okosu(wake up)
ochiru(drop, fall)-------- otosu(drop)

(5) eru-------------------------->yasu
hieru(get cold)---------- hiyasu(make cold)
hueru(gain, increase)---- huyasu(gain, increase)

(6) eru--------------------------->asu
deru(get out)-------------- dasu(take out)
tokeru(dissolve)--------- tokasu(dissolve)
sameru(get cold)--------- samasu(make cold)

(7) reru--------------------------->su
kowareru(be broken)---------- kowasu(crash,break)
taoreru(fall down)-------- taosu(knock down)
yogoreru(get dirty)------ yogosu(make dirty)

(8) eru---------------------------->u
oreru(breake, snap)--------------- oru(breake off)
kireru(break snap)---------------- kiru(cut)
yabureru(tear)----------- yaburu(tear)
wareru(be smashed)------------- waru(smash)

(9)an irregular conjugation
kieru(be turned, go out)----kesu(turn off, blow off)

In the next article we will pick up the expression "____teiru and ____tearu", which relates to jidoshi and tadoushi.
Please take a look, I'm lookindg forward to seeing you again.

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